Latino/a and Arab/Muslim American population.

Read Chapters 11 and 15 in your textbook Cultural Diversity: A Primer for the Human Services.

TEXTBOOK INFORMATION

Title: Cultural Diversity: A Primaer for the Human Services Edition: 5th (2014) Author: Jerry V. Diller Publisher: Cengage Learning Book ISBN: 978-1-285-07540-2

Your original response to the Discussion topic should be at least 350 words and should reflect the fact that you have completed the assigned readings and activities. Use your words wisely so that the posting has substance and includes examples and explanations. The best practice is to include citations and a reference list.

For the discussion, choose either a state or national level challenge you might encounter when working with Latino/a and Arab/Muslim American population.

Name the state you live in (if choosing a national level challenge this is not required), discuss one state or national level challenge and why addressing this challenge is important in the cross-cultural work you will do with Latino/a and Arab/Muslim American population.

Discuss the important dimensions (family, values/structure, gender role expectations, role conflict, acculturation, religiosity, educational characteristics, and discrimination) and their implications in your cross-cultural work with Latino/a and Arab/Muslim clients.

leadership development leader

Here is the assignment instructions based on the presentation . the paper instructions are underlined at the bottom. I attached the slides ,so it may help you with the paper . the paper should be 2-3 pages, and the named of group mates are attached in the first attached picture. if you have any questions feel free to ask. Also, please make sure there is no plagiarism.

In groups of three to four people, as a group, you will create a new club, organization, or student leadership group proposal to start at the University. Included in the proposal will be a group mission statement, core values, target audience, team roles (consider each member’s strengths), and a group sponsored event. For the event, use the event planning worksheet with a $1,000 budget.

As a group, you will give a 5-7 minute presentation with at least three powerpoint slides to propose the new club, organization, or student leadership group and the event. Then, individually write a 2-3 page reflection paper that discusses the group process and team dynamics behind the planning of the proposal and event..

Abortion and Infanticide, writing homework help

  •  write a careful and thoughtful essay: The paper have to be at least 3 to 4 pages long and have to be only base on the article specify below, Please only in the article below.
  • Thank you.
  • Tooley says “If one holds that it is seriously wrong to kill an unborn member of the species Homo sapiens but not an unborn kitten, one should be prepared to point to some property that is morally significant that is possessed by unborn members of Homo sapiens but not by unborn kittens.” (51) Elaborate on this point to form it into a clear position.  What common “mistake” is Tooley illuminating?  Do you agree that there is a mistake occurring?  Carefully explain why or why not.

Abortion and Infanticide

Author(s):

Michael Tooley

Reviewed work(s):

Source:

Philosophy & Public Affairs,

Vol. 2, No. 1 (Autumn, 1972), pp. 37-65

Published by:

Blackwell Publishing

Stable URL:

http://www.jstor.org/stable/2264919

If you can’t access the article I will provided here later on.

Well Written Review of Attached Information

Write a three-page (typed and double-spaced) summary from the information attached  on Mary McLeod Bethune and Black Women’s Political Activism. Use the outline cited below for the article review  and to write your review. 

1. Paragraph 1. Explain the author’s thesis–the main point or points that he/she is trying to make in the book. This is not a description or summary of the book; it is an explanation of the author’s purpose, the central idea or ideas around which the book is organized. 

2. Next 3-4 paragraphs. Give a broad, general summary of the book. You cannot in 3-4 paragraphs summarize the entire book, but you can give an example of the author’s arguments that capture the flavor of the book. 

3. Next paragraph. Discuss the sources upon which the author bases his/her book. What research materials did he or she use? 

4. Last paragraph. tell me whether or not you like it or found it interesting, but tell me how successful the author was in achieving his/her objective

Please provide a work cited sheet at the end. 

The Northern Paiute Essay

For this assignment, you will pick one, or two, of the HNAI readings from Week 3. Describe what archaeologists might find as remnants of the culture group you chose, what of their material culture is likely to survive in the archaeological record. How might archaeologists distinguish this culture group from others based on material remains? Describe specific types of artifacts and ecofacts you think would preserve, as well as features (or partial features), and site types.

All answers must be written in proper essay format using correct grammar, spelling, etc.

Essays should be a minimum of 700 words (2-3 pages, double-spaced).

All articles and chapters referenced must be included in a separate References Cited page at the end. MLA format.

readings:

HNAI vol 11 and 12 – Northern Paiute, Klamath and Modoc chapters, attached in file. No outside resources needed!! Use only attached files.

Discussion response 2

During the past seven weeks of this course we have read, studied, watched videos, and written discussions that dealt with supervision and leadership in schools. I have learned an extensive amount of information regarding this topic and am very thankful for that. While reading my first discussion post, I found this phrase, “Jesus led in such a way that made people want to become His followers because he was trustworthy, transparent, and had a vision.” The three aspects of leadership I mentioned in that statement still ring true for me today. I do believe school leaders need to be trustworthy, transparent, and have a vision but that is not all. There are many other aspects of leadership that make a school supervisor. After all this, I can safely say my philosophy of leadership has been strengthened and enlightened by the new knowledge gained through this course. One of the most important things I learned through these weeks is that leadership and supervision are positions that go beyond tasks but into shepherding. Reading through the text I learned the different roles and responsibilities a school leader has such as doing observations, following up on discussions, decisions, or plans, developing professional developments, assessing data, and bringing innovative ideas and plans to the school. Along with this, there are also various types of leadership that our textbook discussed and how a good leader knows when to use these types and approaches depending on the situation and teacher. During this course, I wanted to learn more about the specific responsibilities a leader had and after studying these past few weeks I have learned about these responsibilities.

My philosophy of leadership has expanded into areas such as the importance of the development of teachers, so they can develop students. The importance of establishing warm and safe relationships with students, getting to know them, being visible to them and parents are all aspects of leadership that are beneficial. After watching the many videos, I came to the realization that leadership and supervision are positions that require character, passion, determination, vision, and tact.

I know I will continue to expand my knowledge on leadership as I study and work, but having a good foundation and understanding of these roles is essential.

Introduction Essay (one page) I need 4 copy (total 4 pages)

We are in the same class and same teacher. I need 4 different copy of this assignment for me and my friend.

Unit #1 Introduction Essay

Introduce yourself, both as a person and as a writer. Introduce yourself and describe your writing experiences thus far in an informal but detailed letter to the instructor (at least 300 words).

What do you feel are your strengths and weaknesses as a writer?

What is your personal approach to writing?

What do you like or hate about writing?

You may also want to consider the quotes in the first chapter of our textbook.

Which of these feel true for you?

Which of these seem contrary to your experiences with (or opinions of) writing?

Union Cycliste Language Barriers in Education Impact Reflective Paper

writing as an educational historian and an educational advocate–which we’ll be doing for our major papers. So today we’re beginning with the “research” you’ve already done into public education: your own experiences in school. I’m asking you to write, then share what you wrote in small groups and then perhaps with the class. Here’s the prompt:

Reflect on your own education–in elementary, middle, or high school, or right here at UC Irvine–and identify a problem. What about your own education, or the education of others you know, caused difficulties or harm? Write for fifteen (15) minutes, covering two parts:

Part 1: Historical Analysis:

  • Identify the problem: What is it? What is its scope. Who’s affected?
  • What are its impacts on you and/or others. What harms did/does it cause?
  • Think about the causes of the problem: What factors led to it? When did it begin? How did it develop?

Part 2: Advocacy:

  • Discuss how the problem could be solved, or what attempts have already been made to solve the problem.
  • Who’s responsible for solving it? What must they do? What might it cost? Why are/aren’t these solutions likely to work?

Can’t think of a problem? Here are some ideas:

– Parental Involvement

– Administrators: principals, course directors, provosts, school boards, etc.

– Support staff (counselors, custodians, office managers, etc.)

– School closure or takeover

– Curriculum: In math, science, language, social sciences, arts, etc. (This could include recent shifts with Common Core.)

– Extracurriculars, including clubs and sports: lack of support for; over-emphasis on

– Academic programs: Special Ed, AVID, Summer Bridge, etc.

– Funding: tuition or expenses

– Class segregation or conflict (i.e. socioeconomic segregation, a.k.a. divides between the wealthy and the poor)–between schools, within schools and between classes or tracks, including access for low-income students

– Racial Segregation: see above -> between schools, between classes or tracks

– Students: preparation, motivation, workload, cheating, retention

– Tests: Too many, Too few. Tests on the wrong things or at the wrong times or in the wrong manner.

– Teachers: Preparation, Motivation, Retention

– Facilities: i.e. Environment and Equipment, including technology

– Language barriers: e.g. between teachers and students, between students

Career Documents: Phase One: Job Advertisement Analysis

I am a junior, major in Media and Culture, and co-major in art management. I am going to find a job in the media field, it can also good to be a trainee or assistant at the beginning, so I can have more chances to learn. Please seek a current and plausible job advertisement.

Overview

For this assignment you will be creating Career Documents for a position you can currently apply for or will be qualified to apply for in the near future (such as one to two years out). This assignment will ask you to seek out advertisements for available positions and to write to the qualifications for one, current plausible position.

You will be using the database, Ohio Means Jobs (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., a site that consolidates career-path advice, information, jobs, and job fairs. It is also a site that you can recommend to others, such as a high school relative who may be interested in studying for certifications or applying for internships.

Note: although this site is Ohio-based, the jobs are not bounded in only Ohio.

The following video is a tutorial on how to navigate the site: Getting Started (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site..

On average, Americans change job positions fourteen times within their life span. It may be infeasible to retrain each time you apply for a new job, so what does this mean for you? Knowing how to translate your skills and experiences from one context to the next is one of the most important thing you might learn from this course.

By the end of this project you should have a working template that you can revise to submit to future job positions. More importantly, you will understand the concepts and approaches that you can use for future job/work contexts.

Parameters/Process

Phase One

Once you have explored and created an account with Ohio Means Jobs. Please seek out and use one job advertisement that you believe that you may be competitive in acquiring, given your current credentials or the credentials you will have in one to two years out. That is, you want to be realistic enough about your credentials so that you are able to create effective career documents.

I encourage you to use advertisements for positions you may want to attain immediately, such as internships, graduate school, and grants so that you can use your documents for acquiring a “real” experience. If you are at sophomore status or below, I highly suggests internships since you may not have enough experience to include in your career documents.

Write no more than a one page, single-spaced memo that helps you analyze the selected job ad. The memo should be technical, professionally formatted, and clearly written. Review the Anderson textbook for how to do this. If you need additional help with writing a memo, please visit this site on Memo Writing (Links to an external site.)Links to an external site., and review the sample of a professional memo.

You can address the letter to me (Kim Rayburn) and use Miami University as the heading. Use sections/headings to separate work and increase readability.

Prompts for Memo:

  1. What are some of the key words and phrases from your chosen job advertisement? Create a short list of about five to seven words or phrases; these words tend to be repeated or appear first in a job advertisement. (These words or synonyms will be what you want to use in your own career documents.)
  2. What are three key qualifications that the advertisement is seeking from a candidate? These qualifications may be ones with which you most relate to or which you excel at doing. For instance, you may excel at managing diverse groups of people. Many advertisements seek employers who are able to adapt in a changing environment; this may be something that your documents can highlight.
  3. Describe how your own experiences align or match these qualifications. Be as extensive as possible with this section and use examples that support these qualifications. As noted by some of the materials from this Module, stating “I’m a team-player” is not enough of an example for your readers to better understand your qualifications. By incorporating specific, clear examples, you make yourself more credible and memorable to your readers.

Please note: When you submit this part of your assignment, include a copy of the job advertisement.

To Complete this Assignment:

  • Create a profile with Ohio Means Jobs.
  • Seek a current and plausible job advertisement.
  • Research your own expertise, experiences, and skill set that will be applicable to the advertisement.
  • Draft and submit a memo report that addresses the prompts above.
  • Submit the job advertisement along with your memo report.

natural law and social Darwinism, writing homework help

In a Word document, write a short essay based on the questions below.

  • Does the relationship between natural law and social Darwinism surprise you? Why or why not? What about the relationship between Social Darwinism and racism?
  • Has your opinion of social Darwinism changed or remained the same after reading the article? Why?
  • How have the theory of social Darwinism and the information in the article influenced your views of natural law and natural rights? What problems might arise in applying these theories in society?

Writing Requirements

  • Your essay must be three to four pages in length.
  • Your document must be double-spaced using a 12-point font with 1-inch margins and include your name at the top of the first page.
  • Proofread your document to eliminate mechanical and grammatical errors.
  • For citations, follow APA format.

In this second instalment of his three-part series on the controversial race question, Dr Chales Quist-Adade looks at the role Social Darwinism, Eugenics and the Church played in promoting racism. Part One (NA, Dec) ended on the positive note that all humans, of whatever “race” belong to the same gene pool. That is why all members of the “distinct races” can freely interbreed, which explains why a “white” woman and a “black” man can produce normal “white-black” offspring, but it is impossible, for instance, for a pig and a dog, to produce a pig-dog offspring. Please read on …

**********

Human subspecies don’t exist. Unlike many animals, modern humans simply haven’t been around long enough or isolated enough to evolve into separate subspecies or races. Despite surface appearances, we are one of the most similar of all species. Large-scale comparisons of human genomes from many individuals through DNA sequencing show that the gene pool in Africa contains more variation than elsewhere, and that the genetic variation found outside of Africa represents only a subset of that found within the African continent. From a genetic perspective, all humans are therefore Africans, either residing in Africa or in recent exile.

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* Skin colour really is only skin deep. Most traits are inherited independently from one another. The genes influencing skin colour have nothing to do with the genes influencing hair form, eye shape, blood type, musical talent, athletic ability or forms of intelligence. Knowing someone’s skin colour doesn’t necessarily tell you anything else about him or her. Most variation is within, not between, “races”. Of the small amount of total human variation, 85% exists within any local population, be they Italians, Kurds, Koreans or Cherokees. About 94% can be found within any continent. That means two random Koreans may be as genetically different as a Korean and an Italian.

* Slavery predates race. Throughout much of human history, societies have enslaved others, often as a result of conquest or war, even debt, but not because of physical characteristics or a belief in natural inferiority. Due to a unique set of historical circumstances, the European enslavement of Africans in the so-called New World was the first slave system where all the slaves shared similar physical characteristics.

* Race and freedom evolved together. The US was founded on the radical new principle that “All men are created equal”. But the early economy in that country was based largely on slavery. How could this anomaly be rationalised? The new idea of “race” helped explain why some people could be denied the rights and freedoms that others took for granted.

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* Race justified social inequalities as natural. As the race idea evolved, white superiority became “common sense” in America. It justified not only slavery but also the extermination of Indians, exclusion of Asian immigrants, and the taking of Mexican lands by a nation that professed a belief in democracy. Racial practices were institutionalised within American government, laws, and society.

* Race isn’t biological, but racism is still real. Race is a powerful social idea that gives people different access to opportunities and resources. Governments and social institutions have created advantages that disproportionately channel wealth, power, and resources to white people. This affects everyone, whether we are aware of it or not.

So why did the “race scientists” go to such lengths to categorise the human groups and then assign different meanings and ranks to the various groups?

The attempts to categorise the so-called races were born out of an ideology of white supremacy–an ideology which holds that the white race is superior to the non-white races. “Scientific” racism was invented to rationalise this ideology. The ideology of white supremacy itself stemmed from Social Darwinism, a racist, sexist, and classist theory based on the premise of “survival of the fittest”.

The term “survival of the fittest”, coined by the English sociologist Herbert Spencer, was a vulgarisation of a more complex theory: his compatriot Charles Darwin’s theory of evolution by natural selection. Herbert Spencer perverted Darwinism, which sought to explain the origin and evolution of the plant and animal species through natural selection and struggle.

The assumption of Social Darwinism is that some societies, races, etc, are endowed with superior genes, while others inherit inferior genes. Those fortunate enough to have superior genes are better able to survive and thrive and control their social environments, which includes those others unlucky enough to have been endowed with inferior genes.

Social Darwinists drew on the idea of struggle and survival as natural mechanisms for improving the “stock”–i.e, genetic characteristics–of human beings. In fact, inferior races and societies, it was hypothesised, would “naturally” wither away. Any attempts to save them were in defiance of the laws of nature.

Subsequently, Adam Smith’s laissez-faire economic theory, which proposed non-government intervention in economic affairs of individuals and the promotion of free-market economy based on the “invisible hands” of the market, was incorporated into Social Darwinism. The aim was to let the “natural laws” of the market take their due course, during which the “economically deficient” peoples would be weeded out and the “economically progressive” would thrive.

According to the history professor, Wallace G. Mills, in the 19th century Europeans increasingly became preoccupied, even obsessed, with “race” for various reasons:

(a) The development of technology (particularly military technology) gave Europeans tremendous weapons and power superiority over non-white peoples. Power indeed corrupts and breeds arrogance. Europeans came to regard “race” as an explanation for the disparities between their societies and other societies. Ultimately, they began to attribute military and technological advantage and superiority to the actual characteristic of “white-skin” or “race”!

(b) The social sciences (especially anthropology–social as well as physical–and sociology) were heavily influenced by biological sciences both in method and the adoption of analogies; thus social scientists set out to classify different “races” by attempting to perceive of human beings as members of different sub-species or even different species.

(c) Exclusionist ideas of nationalism contributed to and drew from racist thinking; thus a homogenous “nation” (one which shared a language, and whose people shared physical characteristics, culture, etc.) constituted a “race”; there were frequent references to the British “race”, French “race” or to the German “race”.

Writes Prof Mills: “Alternately, it was asserted that many of the homogenous characteristics (not only physical characteristics but also moral, intellectual and ‘spiritual’ characteristics) were transmitted genetically and were thus racial.” Mills outlines several consequences of Social Darwinism and ultimately, white supremacy:

(a) Ranking: This generated the ideas not only that human beings could be classified into different “races” but also that the “races” could be ranked on a scale from higher to lower. As a criterion for ranking, sometimes culture or technology was used, but especially as the “new imperialism” and the “scramble for Africa” ensued, military power (brute strength) seemed to be the chief criterion to determine ranking.

Thus “proficiency in subjugating or even exterminating one’s opponents” was the measure of “higher” races relative to “lower”, “more primitive” races. Someone who kills with a spear or bow and arrow is more primitive than someone who kills with machine guns and artillery. Of course, those who obliterate with atomic weapons must be a “higher” race still!

(b) Morality: Social Darwinists rejected the idea of morality as an important consideration in human affairs. It was not “right” but survivability or plain might that mattered. Nature, they argued, was amoral. In the law of nature, might is right–the strong should and would inherit the earth, with no namby-pamby platitudes about the meek.

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The hungry lion does not care whether or not the antelope in its view is sick or is only a calf. Thus any people or “race”, which could not defend its land deserved to lose it. This, of course, was the rationalisation for colonisation of vast stretches of Africa, Asia and Latin America.

(c) Competition: Social Darwinists saw competition and struggle operating both internally and externally in societies, and competition separated the efficient and able from those less evolved, at least if laissez-faire policies were in place. They called for an end to “interference” in the natural processes and for the “survival of the fittest”. While they did not condone physical violence and destruction, they sought to achieve their objective–the destruction of their rivals–through economic means.

Moreover, they insisted that the prosperous and dominant peoples should produce children at high rates while the poor and unsuccessful, with fewer resources and opportunities, should be discouraged and even prevented from producing children on as large a scale. Societies worldwide, however, were not in accord with Social Darwinism. Fertility rates were declining among the upper social and economic classes but on the rise among the lower classes.

Eugenics

Eventually Social Darwinists began to argue that society and government should become actively involved to ensure that what they thought should happen actually did happen, and this line of thinking led to the birth of eugenics–biological engineering and selective breeding of humans. Eugenicists tried to apply to humans the knowledge and practices that had been developed for the breeding of domestic animals.

In Canada and the USA, eugenicists and Social Darwinists tended to focus on immigration policies. Both countries passed anti-Asian legislation and erected political and social barriers to immigration. In British Columbia, serious riots and public pressure induced the legislature to pass laws to restrict the immigration of Indians from Asia.

Among the Imperial Federationists in Canada (many of whom were Social Darwinists), there was a great deal of concern about immigration from southern, eastern and central Europe, from which increasing proportions of immigrants were coming in the last two decades before 1914. These immigrants were regarded as greatly “inferior” to the “British”, “Germanic” or “Nordic” “races”, and therefore their presence threatened to reduce the quality of the “racial stock” in Canada.

Prof Mills offers amusing sidelights to this Social Darwinism. Charles Kellogg was a Social Darwinist and a zealot for “moral purity”. He thought that eggs and meat stimulated sexual appetites and urges. Thus his invention of corn flakes was an attempt to find a quick and easy cereal substitute for bacon and eggs.

He hoped this switch in diet would help young men to preserve their “moral purity”. The concern for “moral purity” was certainly partly religious (Kellogg was active in the YMCA, which was a religious organisation at that time), but it was also related to his concern to maintain and even to raise the quality of racial stock among young American men, as he was convinced that only the “pure” could father healthy, sturdy children.

The Christian scriptures were also used to sanctify race bigotry and to justify slavery and social inequality. For example, the Bible’s story of Ham’s curse, it was suggested, told Christians that God had ordained Africans to be the slaves of Europeans.

According to that Biblical narration (see Genesis 9:18-27), once upon a time, Noah, a lover of wine, had had too much to drink (people who are intoxicated sometimes do funny things) and went to bed naked. Ham, one of Noah’s three sons (the other two are Shem and Japheth) had entered his father’s room and saw his father’s nakedness. He burst out of the room, poking fun at his father to his brothers. His bothers did not take kindly to Ham’s behaviour. They covered their father with a cloth, approaching him backwards. When Noah awoke and discovered Ham’s indiscretion, he supposedly cursed Canaan, Ham’s son (but curiously not Ham), saying he would be the servant of servants of his brothers. In turn, Noah praised Shem and blessed Japheth. By some absurd logic, Euro-Christians came to believe that Africans are descended from Ham. Thus, the curse of Ham and the colour black came to be equated with punishment, evil and sin in Christendom.

In the Middle Ages, the tripartite division of the world into Africa, Asia and Europe, as well as the Three Kings or Wise Men who came to worship the Christ child, were based on that Biblical logic. This quotation from Saint Simon, one of the founders of Western social thought, explains it all: “Know that Europeans are the sons of Abel … Asia and Africa inhabited by descendants of Cain. See how bloodthirsty Africans are. Note the indolence of Asiatics.”

This colour symbolism in Christianity explains why the image of Jesus

Christ, for example, is that of a blue-eyed European (“white”) male, his Jewish origin obscured through a kind of artistic cosmetic surgery. Of course, this also explains why Satan or the Anti-Christ is symbolised by the colour black. God created man in His image; Europeans created God in their image. This is not surprising. To paraphrase one sage: If horses could draw and you ask them to draw their god, that god would look like a horse.

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According to Jan Nerdeveen Pieterse, author of Black on White, the crucial issue is not so much the actual punishment meted out by God to Cain or by Noah to Ham, but rather it is the fact that Christians later came to understand such punishment in a specific way and to act on the basis of that understanding. The colour symbolism and the imagery of Eurocentrism succeeded the colour symbolism and imagery of Christendom, and passed over into European colonialism and slavery. The images of Africans and blacks in the minds of Euro-Americans were built on several foundations, the most prominent of which are:

(1) The European slave trade, which saw the forced importation of millions of Africans as human cargo to the so-called New World for over 400 years.

(2) Slave-master relationships in the plantations of the Americas.

(3) Colonial-and neo-colonial-subject relationships based on European colonisation of the countries of Africa, Asia and Latin America.

(4) Majority-minority relationships as well as dominant-subordinate relationships stemming from White-Anglo-Saxon domination in both numerical terms and power-wise of the social, economic, ideological and political directions of multi-ethnic/multi-racial society.

According to Pieterse, in each of these relationships, Europeans constructed the images of non-European people in general, and of Africans and “blacks” in particular, on the basis of selective perception, expedience, and secondhand information mingled with reconstructed Biblical notions and folklore, along with a dash of “scientific” ideas that were popular at the time.

European views of Africans and their continent were formed over an extended period of time, dating from antiquity. Thus, contemporary Anglo-American views of Africans are a crystallisation of images distilled from the travelogues and accounts of European explorers, Christian missionaries, and colonial (European) administrators.

Added to these was imagery taken from popular “scientific” literature, particularly fiction and yellow journalism. During the colonial period, H. Rider Haggard’s type of romantic popular tales, coupled with yellow journalism and pseudo-scientific reportage, painted the image of a dark continent inhabited by rude savages and godless heathens. The colonial remedy to this myth was the civilising and proselytising mission of the Christian West. I hear you say, “So what? This happened long ago. We have come a long way from the H. Rider Haggard years and the times of Jim Crow racism.”

Well, my answer is that, yes, indeed, a great amount of water has passed under the bridge of time since the civil rights movement in North America and wave of the independence movement in Africa and other parts of the African Diaspora.

But the mere passage of time is not a proof that things have changed for the better in race relations between the people of African descent and their former oppressors, enslavers and exploiters. Time, it is said, heals. However, in the case of racism, described by Kwame Nkrumah, Ghana’s pioneer president, as the “foulest invention by man”, time has only managed to help its more obvious and odious forms to mutate into less visible and less “reprehensible” forms.

Quist-Adade, Chales